The Gospel of Matthew
|Fast Facts: The Gospel of Matthew|
|Author||Matthew, the tax collector and apostle (tradition); unknown Greek-speaking Christian writing much later (scholars); known as "St. Matthew the Evangelist"|
|Date||c. 80-90 CE|
|Place||probably Syria (Antioch or other city); maybe southern Galilee (Tiberias or Sepphoris)|
|Sources||Mark, Q, and M|
|Themes||Jesus as Messiah; Jesus as fulfillment of Jewish prophecy; Jesus' ethical teachings|
The Gospel of Matthew is the first book in the Christian New Testament and is one of the four gospels. It is named for its traditional author, Matthew the tax collector and disciple, and was written sometime in the later 1st century CE.
The Gospel of Matthew, more commonly called simply "Matthew," is 28 chapters long. It is the longest of the four gospels when counting chapters, however the Gospel of Luke is longer when counting verses and words. It is organized around five discourses of Christ, with a prologue and epilogue (Ch. 5-7; Ch. 10; Ch. 13; Ch. 18; Ch. 24-25).
There is widespread agreement that Matthew was written for a Jewish audience and its primary purpose is to convince Jews that Jesus of Nazareth is the promised Messiah of the Hebrew Scriptures. Matthew contains 65 Old Testament quotations, while by comparison, Luke has 43.
Date of the Gospel of Matthew
Because Matthew uses earlier sources, including the Gospel of Mark, and alludes to the destruction of the Temple in 70 CE (Matthew 22:7, 21:41, 23:38), it was likely written some time after 70 CE. And it must have been written before 110 CE, the first reference to the Gospel (by Ignatius of Antioch). Modern scholars date it to around 80 to 85 CE,1974 90 CE1973 or later.1969
Author of the Gospel of Matthew
Since early Christianity, this gospel has been attributed to Matthew the tax collector, who was called to become Jesus' disciple in Matthew 9:9-13. This has made the Gospel of Matthew especially popular, as it was thought to record the eyewitness account of one of Jesus' disciples.1968
- the author never identifies himself as Matthew in his gospel
- the author uses the third person to describe Matthew's calling
- the author relies heavily on earlier sources, which an eyewitness to the events would be unlikely to do
- Matthew was a Palestinian Jew living in the 20s CE, but textual evidence indicates the author was a Greek-speaker writing around 80 CE
A conservative Christian source that affirms the tradition of Matthew's authorship suggests that Matthew used the Gospel of Mark because "he agreed with it and and wanted to show that the apostolic testimony to Christ was not divided."1965
Modern scholars have thus designated the author as an unknown Greek-speaking Christian, writing about 50 years after the death of Jesus. It is unknown whether he was a Jewish or Gentile Christian.1971 Although the author was not Matthew himself, "the disciple Matthew probably did play an important role in the church from which the Gospel of Matthew comes."1971
In Christian art and symbolism, the authors of the Gospels are called the Four Evangelists and given symbols based on the four "living creatures" of Revelation 4. , The author of this gospel is known as St. Matthew the Evangelist and symbolized by a winged man.
Matthew is one of the Synoptic Gospels, along with the Gospel of Mark and the Gospel of Luke. By analyzing the text, modern scholars have concluded that these three gospels share several sources.
The Gospel of Matthew's sources have been identified as: the Gospel of Mark (all but 60 verses of Mark appear in Matthew, with some modifications1969), the source called Q, and a source known as "M." The M source consists of material, which may have come from written and/or oral sources, that is unique to Matthew.
Narratives Unique to Matthew
- Christ's genealogy from Abraham to Joseph through the male line; the succession to the throne, from Abraham through king David to Joseph, 42 generations, with omissions.
- Joseph's dreams (Matthew 1)
- Christ worshipped by the wise men, Herod's massacre of the children at Bethlehem, Herod's death, and Christ's return to Nazareth (Matthew 2)
- Sermon on the Mount in full (Matthew 5-7)
- healing of two blind men (Matthew 9)
- call to the heavy laden (Matthew 11)
- parables of the hidden treasure, the pearl, and the drag-net (Matthew 13)
- Peter's confession of Christ, and Christ's confirmation of Peter's name (Matthew 16; compare John 1:42).
- Jesus pays the tribute with money from a fish (Matthew 17)
- Jesus cures two blind men while going from Jericho (Matthew 20)
- parable of the wedding garment (Matthew 22)
- parables of the ten virgins, talents, and sheep and goats at the judgment (Matthew 25)
- dream of Pilate's wife, appearance of many saints after the crucifixion (Matthew 27)
- soldiers bribed to say that Christ's disciples had stolen His body (Matthew 28)
Outline of Matthew
- Introduction; Christ's genealogy, birth; visit of the wise men; flight to Egypt; return to Nazareth; John the Baptist's preparatory ministry; Christ's baptism, with the Father's declared approval (Mt. 1-3).
- Temptation; ministry in Galilee; call of disciples (Mt. 4).
- Sermon on the Mount (Mt. 5--7).
- Events in order, proving his claim to Messiahship by miracles (Mt. 8-9).
- Appointment of apostles; doubts of John's disciples; cavils of the Pharisees; his loving invitations, miracles, series of parables on the kingdom; effects of his ministry on Herod and various classes; prophecy to his disciples of coming death (Mt. 10-18:35).
- Ministry in Judea and Jerusalem (Mt. 19-20).
- Passion week: entry into Jerusalem; opposition by Herodians, Sadducees, Pharisees; silences them all; denunciation of the Pharisees (Mt. 21-23).
- Last discourses: His coming as Lord and Judge (Mt. 24-25).
- Passion and resurrection (Mt. 26-28).
Online Text of the Gospel of Matthew
- Gospel of Matthew: Bible Gateway (NIV / KJV / NASB / RSV / NIV-IBS / DARBY / YLT / WE / NKJV)
- Gospel of Matthew: Perseus NT (English/Greek/Latin)
- Gospel of Matthew: Blueletter Bible (English/Greek)
- Gospel of Matthew: HTML Bible (Greek/YLT/KJV/ASV)
- Gospel of Matthew: The Online Greek Bible (various Greek fonts)
- The Five Gospels Parallels (Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, Thomas; English)
- Four-Color Synopsis (Matthew, Mark, Luke; Greek)
Online Guides to the Gospel of Matthew
- Synoptic Gospels Primer
by Mahlon H. Smith
- Synoptic Gospels
- The Gospel According to Matthew
by Alfred Loisy
- The Gospel of Matthew
by Edgar Goodspeed
- Gospel of Matthew
- Studies in Matthew
- Gospel of St. Matthew
The Catholic Encyclopedia
- An Introduction to the New Testament: The Gospel of Matthew
by Richard Heard
- A Historical Introduction to the New Testament: The Gospel of Matthew
by Robert M. Grant
- Media Papyri: Examining Carsten Thiede's Rediscovered Fragments
by Sigrid Peterson
- Book Review: Carsten Peter Thiede's Rekindling the Word: In Search of Gospel
by Daryl D. Schmidt
- Jesus as Anointed and Healing Son of David in the Gospel of Matthew
by Kim Paffenroth, Biblical Studies on the Web
- The Sermon on the Mount
by Joachim Jeremias
- The Sermon on the Mount
by Roger Shinn
- The Gospel of Matthew
by William Cannon
- Gospels, the external evidence and dating
by Bernard D. Muller
Books on the Gospel of Matthew
- Dale C. Allison, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Gospel According to Saint Matthew (T&T Clark Ltd., 1989).
- Scott Hahn, Gospel of Matthew: With Introduction, Commentary, and Notes and With Study Questions (Ignatius Catholic Study Bible).
- Daniel J. Harrington, The Gospel of Matthew (Liturgical Press, 1991)
- Craig S. Keener, A Commentary on the Gospel of Matthew.
- Burton L. Mack, Who Wrote the New Testament? The Making of the Christian Myth (HarperCollins, 1996), pp. 161-167.
- Leon Morris, The Gospel According to Matthew (Pillar New Testament Commentary).
- Jerome H. Neyrey, Honor and Shame in the Gospel of Matthew.
- Barbara Brown Taylor, The Seeds of Heaven: Sermons on the Gospel of Matthew.
- “Matthew.” Barker, Kenneth (ed.), The NIV Study Bible (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan),pp. 1439-1440. Evangelical Christian perspective.
- Bercot, David W. (ed.), A Dictionary of Early Christian Beliefs: A Reference Guide to More Than 700 Topics Discussed by the Early Church Fathers .
- Smith, Thomas, M. Div., New Testament (Study Guide) (Quick Study, 2007). Study guide pamphlet. "Authorship: "unknown"; place: "probably Antioch.""
- “The Gospel of Matthew.” Ehrman, Bart, The Bible: A Historical and Literary Introduction (Oxford University Press).
- Coogan, Michael D. (ed.). The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha, College Edition, New Revised Standard Version. "These hints as to its socio-religious context then date the composition of the gospel sometime between the last decade of the first century and the early second century."
- Coogan, Michael D. (ed.). The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha, College Edition, New Revised Standard Version. "While the traditional place of origin... has been considered the city of Antioch in ancient western Syria, some scholars consider a southern Galileean city, such as Tiberias or Sepphoris, a more likely location..."
- “The Gospel of Matthew.” Schnelle, Udo, History and Theology of the New Testament Writings (Minneapolis: FORTRESS PRESS),pp. 217-238.
- “The Gospel of Matthew.” Schnelle, Udo, History and Theology of the New Testament Writings (Minneapolis: FORTRESS PRESS), p. 219. "It is very unlikely that an eyewitness of the ministry of Jesus would have used the work of the non-eyewitness Mark as the basis for his own work."
- “The Gospel of Matthew.” Schnelle, Udo, History and Theology of the New Testament Writings (Minneapolis: FORTRESS PRESS), p. 222. "The Gospel of Matthew was therefore probably written around 90 CE."
- “The Gospel of Matthew.” Ehrman, Bart, The Bible: A Historical and Literary Introduction (Oxford University Press), p. 254. "this Gospel was written some fifty years or so after the death of Jesus, possibly sometime between 80 and 85 CE."