Islamic Rituals and Practices
|Fast Facts: Islamic Rituals and Practices|
|Overview||Five Pillars: Faith, Prayer, Alms, Pilgrimage, Fasting. Mosque services on Fridays. Ablutions before prayer. No alcohol or pork. Holidays related to the pilgrimage and fast of Ramadan.|
|House of Worship||mosque|
|Day of Worship||Friday|
|Holidays||Al-Hijra, Ramadan, 'Id Al-Fitr|
Religious practices and rituals are very important in Islam. They are a significant way that followers of Islam remember history, express conviction, and grow in devotion.
Some rituals are practiced daily, like prayer; others are practiced annually, like those aligned with specific Islamic holidays. The religious practices and rituals of Islam are relatively few in number, but great in importance. The Five Pillars of Islam are practices regarded by all sects of Islam as essential to the Muslim faith.
Five Pillars of Islam
The Five Pillars of Islam (Arabic arkan ud-Din, "pillars of the faith") are the five religious duties expected of every Muslim. The five pillars are mentioned individually throughout the Qur'an and Muhammad listed them together in the Hadith when he was asked to define Islam.
Confession of faith (shahada)
The first of the Five Pillars of Islam is the shahada. Shahada is the Muslim profession of faith, expressing the two simple, fundamental beliefs that make one a Muslim:
La ilaha illa Allah wa-Muhammad rasul Allah. There is no god but God and Muhammad is the prophet of God.
Ritual prayer (salat)
Perhaps the most well-known Muslim practices among non-Muslims is ritual prayer, or salat, which is performed five times a day: at dawn (al-fajr), midday (al-zuhr), afternoon (al-'asr), sunset (al-maghrib) and evening (al-'isha).
Alms tax (zakat)
Almsgiving is a central activity in Islam. The Quran explicitly requires it (9:60) and often places it alongside prayer when discussing a Muslim's duties. ("Perform the prayer and give the alms." 2:43, 110, 277)
For those who are greedy and use their money outside of the will of Allah, the Quran has harsh words: the fires of hell will heat up the coins and the greedy will be branded with it (9:34-35).
Fasting during the month of Ramadan (sawm)
Sawm (also siyam), fasting, commemorates the revelation of the Quran to humanity during Ramadan, the ninth month of the Islamic year.
Pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj)
At least once in his or her lifetime, each Muslim is expected to undertake a pilgrimage to Mecca, the sacred city of Islam. This holy journey is called the hajj in Arabic.