March 4, 2015 · updated February 15, 2022

Diwali (Sanskrit Dīpãvali, "row of lights") is a festival of lights celebrated in Hinduism, Jainism, and Sikhism. Symbolizing the victory of light over darkness, it is celebrated for five days in the lunar months of Ashvina and Karttika (usually late October and November).

Meaning of Diwali

The “row of lights” for which the Diwali festival is named are lit on the new-moon night to welcome Lakshmi, the goddess of wealth. But in Bengal, it is the goddess Kaliwho is so honored, and in North India the festival also celebrates the return of Rama, Sita, Lakshmana, and Hanuman to the city of Ayodhya, where Rama's rule of righteousness was inaugurated.

For many Hindus, Diwali is also New Year's Eve, as Diwali is held on the final day of the Vikram calendar, a Hindu calendar followed by North Indians.

The Diwali season is also significant to Sikhs. During Diwali in 1620, the sixth Guru, Hargobind Singh, gained the release of 52 Hindu princes who had been falsely imprisoned in Gwallior Fort by the rulers of the area, the Mughals. The Golden Temple of Amritsar was lit with many lights to welcome the release of Guru Hargobind; Sikhs have continued the tradition.

For Jains, Diwali commemorates the enlightenment of Lord Mahavira. The festival's lights symbolize the light of his knowledge.

While it is not an important festival in Buddhism, some Buddhists celebrate Diwali to commemorate Emperor Ashoka's conversion to Buddhism in the 3rd century BCE.

Date of Diwali

The Hindu calendar is lunar, with most years consisting of 12 lunar cycles and an extra month inserted about every seven years to resynchronize the calendar. Diwali is celebrated for five days from the 13th day of the dark half of the lunar month Ashvina, to the second day of the light half of Karttika. On the Gregorian calendar, Diwali falls in late October or November, and always on a new moon day. Since the new moon falls on different Gregorian dates depending on geographical location, the date of Diwali can also depend on one's location.

Diwali Rituals

Diwali is celebrated with a variety of rituals, which depend in large part on one's location, but they center on the lighting of lamps, candles, electric lights and fireworks.

Throughout the five-day festival, small earthenware oil lamps are lighted and placed in rows along the tops of temples and houses and set adrift on rivers and streams. Gambling is encouraged during the Diwali season as a way of ensuring good luck for the coming year and in remembrance of the games of dice played by the Lord Shiva and Parvati on Mount Kailasa or between Radha and Krishna. In honor of Lakshmi, the female player always wins during Diwali.

The fourth day — the main day of Diwali and the beginning of the lunar month of Karttika — marks the beginning of the new year according to the Vikrama calendar. On this day, merchantsperform religious ceremonies and open new account books. It is generally a time for visiting, exchanging gifts, cleaning and decorating houses, feasting, setting off fireworks displays, and wearing new clothes.

Regional Variations of Diwali

In South India, which uses the Shalivahana calendar, Diwali does not coincide with the beginning of a new year. In South India, the new year (Ugadi), is followed by Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. Vishu and Varsha Pirappu are celebrated in Kerala and Tamil Nadu respectively. These festivals occur at about the same time, generally during April.[1][2]

In England, the days are Dhanteras, Narak Chatrudashi, Lakshmi-Puja, the most important day, Padwa or Varshapratipanda and Bhaiya Dooj or the Teeka Ceremony [3]. In Trinidad and Tobago, the day of Divali is a public holiday and celebrations precede the Lakshmi-Puja day for almost two weeks. This event is one of the foremost religious observances for the country.


  • Tamil New Year Celebrations -
  • City of Leicester website
  • "festivals." John Bowker, ed., Oxford Concise Dictionary of World Religions(Oxford UP, 2000), p. 193.
  • Hindu Festivals 2031.
  • Diwali - Encyclopedia Britannica Online (2007)