Timeline of Judaism




A Chronology of the Jewish faith

jewish man

The Jewish religion is one of the most historic faiths our world has ever known. It dates back to the ancient Hebrews, whose ancestral father was the patriarch Abraham. The history of Judaism is detailed in the Hebrew Bible, which records stories of great miracles, great persecution, and great men and women of faith. There are approximately 14 million Jews in the world today.

History is very important to Judaism because in those stories God reveals himself to people. The following timeline intends to help people get a starting point for understanding Jewish history and the links provided go to more in-depth articles. (See Judaism beliefs)




A timline of the Jewish religion

c. 2000-1500 BCE
Abraham and the Patriarchs
c. 1500-1200 BCE
Egypt, the Exodus and wandering in the desert
1200-1050 BCE
Occupation of Canaan, the Promised Land
1050-920 BCE
United kingdom under Saul, David and Solomon, with capital at Jerusalem
920-597 BCE
Divided kingdom of Israel (north) and Judah (south)
722 BCE
Assyria conquers Israel
701 BCE
Egyptians conquer Judah
612 BCE
Ninevah destroyed by Babylonains and Medes
605 BCE
Babylon conquers Egypt, now rules Judah
568-538 BCE
Babylonian Exile
586 BCE
Destruction of the first temple
550 BCE
Second Isaiah composed
c. 520 BCE
Haggai and Zechariah prophesy
 
516 BCE
Second Temple built
5th cent. BCE
Oldest known example of a ketubah
3rd cent. BCE
Rise of the Sadducees; Septuagint formed
2nd cent. BCE
Idea of resurrection of the dead gains popularity in Jewish circles
c. 20 BCE
Philo Judaeus born
c. 50 CE
Philo dies
70 CE
Destruction of the Second Temple by the Romans on the 9th of Av
c. 90-150
Canonization of Hebrew Bible essentially complete
135
Bar Kokhba rebellion defeated at Betar by Romans on 9th of Av
c. 135
Roman governors ban circumcision
164
Hasmonean revolt against the Romans
c. 200
Compilation of the Mishnah by Judah ha-Nasi
337
Proselytizing for Judaism is punishable by death in the Roman Empire.
358
Rabbi Hillel II introduces permanent fixed ritual calendar
c. 425
Compilation of the Jerusalem Talmud
500-600
Compilation of the Babylonian Talmud
700-1100
Karaite sect rejects Rabbinic Judaism
933
Saadiah Gaon writes the Book of Beliefs and Opinions
1040-1105
Rashi (Rabbi Solomon ben Isaac)
1096
First Crusade prompts anti-Jewish violence in France and Germany
 
1135-1204
Maimonides
1165
Maimondies publishes Mishneh Torah, a compendium of Jewish law of great importance
1180
Maimonides becomes court physician to Saladin
1190
Jews in York massacred on 9th of Av
c. 1250
Compilation of the Zohar
c. 1290
De Leon writes Sefer Ha-Zohar
c. 1400
First known occurances of bar mitzvah ceremony
1475
First book printed in Hebrew (Rashi's commentary)
1492
Jews expelled from Spain
1497
Jews expelled from Portugal
1632
Baruch Spinoza born in Amsterdam
1700s
Founding of Hasidism
1800s
Founding of Orthodox, Reform, and Conservative movements
1906
Emmanuel Levinas born in Lithuania
1907
Abraham Joshua Heschel born in Lithuania
1908
Jews granted full legal equality in Ottoman Empire
1910
Jews granted full legal equality in Spain
1913
Considering conversion to Christianity, Levinas attends a Yom Kippur service and resolves to remain a Jew
1917
Jews granted full legal equality in Russia after Bolshevik victory
1920
Rosenzweig begins lifelong friendship with Martin Buber in Frankfurt
1921
Rosenzweig's Star of Redemption published
1922
Judith Kaplan, daughter of Mordecai Kaplan (founder of the Society for the Advancement of Judaism), is the first to participate in a bat mitzvah ceremony.
1923
Martin Buber's I and Thou published.
1926
Progressive Judaism founded
1929
Franz Rosenzweig dies of amytrophic lateral sclerosis
1933
Adolf Hitler named Reichschancellor
1937
Martin Buber appoints Abraham Joshua Heschel head of the Lehrhaus in Frankfurt and emigrates to Palestine
1937
Columbus Platform
1938
Holocaust begins; Heschel is deported to Poland by the Nazis
1939
Heschel leaves for New York, where he will spend the rest of his life. Levinas, an officer in the French Army, is taken prisoner by the Germans
1942
Deportations from Warsaw to death camp at Treblinka begin on 9th of Av
1945
Heschel joins the faculty of Jewish Theological Seminary
1948
State of Israel established
1950
Israeli Parlianment passes the Law of Return
1965
Martin Buber dies
1967
Jerusalem reunited by Israeli victory in Six-Day War
1972
First female rabbi ordained in Reform movement
1972
Death of Abraham Joshua Heschel
1972
Beit Chayim Chadashim, first gay synagogue, founded in Los Angeles
1974
First female rabbis ordained in Reconstructionist
1980
World Congress of Gay and Lesbian Jewish Organizations founded
1984
First female rabbis ordained in Conservative movement
1993
Death of Joseph Soloveitchik
1996
Death of Emmanuel Levinas
2003
The Union of American Hebrew Congregations changes its name to the Union for Reform Judaism.

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References
  1. George Robinson, Essential Judaism (Pocket Books, 2000), 541-50.
  2. John Bowker, ed., Cambridge Illustrated History of Religions.
  3. "Judaism."  Encyclopædia Britannica (Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service, 2004).