Timeline of Judaism

0-100 CE Chasidei ashkenaz develops
c. 2000-1500 BCE Abraham and the Patriarchs
c. 1500-1200 BCE Egypt, the Exodus and wandering in the desert
1200-1050 BCE Occupation of Canaan, the Promised Land
1050-920 BCEUnited kingdom under Saul, David and Solomon, with capital at Jerusalem
920-597 BCE Divided kingdom of Israel (north) and Judah (south)
722 BCE Assyria conquers Israel
701 BCE Egyptians conquer Judah
612 BCE Ninevah destroyed by Babylonains and Medes
605 BCE Babylon conquers Egypt, now rules Judah
568-538 BCE Babylonian Exile
586 BCE Destruction of the first temple

550 BCE Second Isaiah composed
c. 520 BCE Haggai and Zechariah prophesy
516 BCE Second Temple built
5th cent. BCE Oldest known example of a ketubah
3rd cent. BCE Rise of the Sadducees; Septuagint formed
2nd cent. BCE Idea of resurrection of the dead gains popularity in Jewish circles
c. 20 BCE Philo Judaeus born
Compilation of the Tenakh
c. 50 CE Philo dies
70 CE Destruction of the Second Temple by the Romans on the 9th of Av
c. 90-150 Canonization of Hebrew Bible essentially complete
135 Bar Kokhba rebellion defeated at Betar by Romans on 9th of Av
c. 135 Roman governors ban circumcision
164 Hasmonean revolt against the Romans
c. 200 Compilation of the Mishnah by Judah ha-Nasi
337Proselytizing for Judaism is punishable by death in the Roman Empire.
358Rabbi Hillel II introduces permanent fixed ritual calendar
c. 425 Compilation of the Jerusalem Talmud
500-600 Compilation of the Babylonian Talmud
700-1100 Karaite sect rejects Rabbinic Judaism
933Saadiah Gaon writes the Book of Beliefs and Opinions
1040-1105Rashi (Rabbi Solomon ben Isaac)
1096 First Crusade prompts anti-Jewish violence in France and Germany
1165Maimondies publishes Mishneh Torah, a compendium of Jewish law of great importance
1180Maimonides becomes court physician to Saladin
1190 Jews in York massacred on 9th of Av
c. 1250 Compilation of the Zohar
c. 1290 De Leon writes Sefer Ha-Zohar
c. 1400 First known occurances of bar mitzvah ceremony
1475 First book printed in Hebrew (Rashi's commentary)
1492 Jews expelled from Spain
1497 Jews expelled from Portugal
1632 Baruch Spinoza born in Amsterdam
1700s Founding of Hasidism
1800s Founding of Orthodox, Reform, and Conservative movements
1906 Emmanuel Levinas born in Lithuania
1907 Abraham Joshua Heschel born in Lithuania
1908 Jews granted full legal equality in Ottoman Empire
1910 Jews granted full legal equality in Spain
1913 Considering conversion to Christianity, Levinas attends a Yom Kippur service and resolves to remain a Jew
1917 Jews granted full legal equality in Russia after Bolshevik victory
1920Rosenzweig begins lifelong friendship with Martin Buber in Frankfurt
1921 Rosenzweig's Star of Redemption published
1922 Judith Kaplan, daughter of Mordecai Kaplan (founder of the Society for the Advancement of Judaism), is the first to participate in a bat mitzvah ceremony.
1923Martin Buber's I and Thou published.
1926 Progressive Judaism founded
1929 Franz Rosenzweig dies of amytrophic lateral sclerosis
1933 Adolf Hitler named Reichschancellor
1937Martin Buber appoints Abraham Joshua Heschel head of the Lehrhaus in Frankfurt and emigrates to Palestine
1937 Columbus Platform
1938 Holocaust begins; Heschel is deported to Poland by the Nazis
1939 Heschel leaves for New York, where he will spend the rest of his life. Levinas, an officer in the French Army, is taken prisoner by the Germans
1942 Deportations from Warsaw to death camp at Treblinka begin on 9th of Av
1945 Heschel joins the faculty of Jewish Theological Seminary
1948State of Israel established
1950 Israeli Parlianment passes the Law of Return
1965Martin Buber dies
1967 Jerusalem reunited by Israeli victory in Six-Day War
1972 First female rabbi ordained in Reform movement
1972 Death of Abraham Joshua Heschel
1972 Beit Chayim Chadashim, first gay synagogue, founded in Los Angeles
1974 First female rabbis ordained in Reconstructionist
1980World Congress of Gay and Lesbian Jewish Organizations founded
1984 First female rabbis ordained in Conservative movement
1993 Death of Joseph Soloveitchik
1996 Death of Emmanuel Levinas
2003The Union of American Hebrew Congregations changes its name to the Union for Reform Judaism.


  1. George Robinson, Essential Judaism (Pocket Books, 2000), 541-50.
  2. John Bowker, ed., Cambridge Illustrated History of Religions.
  3. "Judaism."  Encyclopædia Britannica (Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service, 2004).

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