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Article Info:
published: 3/31/13
updated: 2/27/14

Amillennialism



What is amillennialism?

Second Coming of Christ

In the Christian religion, believers have different views on the 1,000-year period of time described in the book of Revelation (cf. Rev. 20:1-6). Amillennialism is one widely-held interpretation of this passage. The name “amillennialism” does not adequately describe this perspective, however. The term amillennialism literally means “no millennium,” since the prefix “a” (that is, "alpha" in Greek) negates the term that it precedes. Yet amillennialists don't adhere to the non-existence of a millennium, they just believe that it 's not a literal 1,000-year period.

Amillennialism is by far the most dominant eschatological position in the history of Christianity. ("Eschatology" refers to the doctrine of "last things," meaning the end times.) The view is held by the Roman Catholic Church, the Greek Orthodox Church, and by a large segment of Protestantism. In recent years, amillennialism has seen an increase in adherents due in part to the decline of dispensational premillennialism.

Where as postmillennialism holds that the 1,000-year millennium will begin by means of the Church preaching the gospel, and premillennialism holds that the 1,000-year millennium will begin after the rapture and the seven-year tribulation, amillennialism believe the 1,000-year millennium began with the first coming of Jesus Christ and will continue until his Second Coming. Scroll down to see the time line explaining amillennialism.


Timeline for amillennialism viewpoint


     Christ                                                                                               Second Coming
____|_________________________________________________|_________________________________
                                 Church Age  =  The Millennium                                                         The Eternal State

 

Amillennialists interpret the 1,000-year millennium figuratively. Revelation 20:1-6 reads,

1 And I saw an angel coming down out of heaven, having the key to the Abyss and holding in his hand a great chain. 2 He seized the dragon, that ancient serpent, who is the devil, or Satan, and bound him for a thousand years. 3 He threw him into the Abyss, and locked and sealed it over him, to keep him from deceiving the nations anymore until the thousand years were ended. After that, he must be set free for a short time. 4 I saw thrones on which were seated those who had been given authority to judge. And I saw the souls of those who had been beheaded because of their testimony about Jesus and because of the word of God. They had not worshiped the beast or its image and had not received its mark on their foreheads or their hands. They came to life and reigned with Christ a thousand years. 5 (The rest of the dead did not come to life until the thousand years were ended.) This is the first resurrection.6 Blessed and holy are those who share in the first resurrection. The second death has no power over them, but they will be priests of God and of Christ and will reign with him for a thousand years. (NIV, emphasis mine)

Amillennialists argue that the 1,000-year references means a long, undetermined amount of time. They argue that numbers throughout the book of Revelation are figurative and so to maintain a consistent interpretation, they contend that the number 1,000 that refers to the millennial period should be understood in the same manner.

Furthermore, in the context of the book of Revelation, amillennialists contend that key passages are not chronologically arranged. Christian theologian Paul Benware elaborates:

"Important to the amillennial approach is this view that Revelation 20 (on the Millennium) does not follow chronologically from Revelation 19, which describes the second coming of Christ. Instead, Revelation 20 is said to give additional information on the period of time between the two comings of Christ. The statements of Revelation 20 concerning the two resurrections and the binding of Satan must, therefore, be interpreted accordingly."

As Benware notes, the two resurrections mentioned in Revelation 20:1-6 are important to the amillennial system. The first resurrection is a spiritual one, associated with the individual accepting Christ. The second resurrection is a physical one that will occur after the millennial period.

Amillennialists further hold that Satan is currently bound in the world. They do not believe Satan is immobile and powerless, but that he is restricted and limited.

Amillennialism and the "last days"

Amillennialism emphasizes New Testament passages that call the time immediately following the resurrection of Christ the “last days.”  To the amillennialist, this means that the millennium began with Christ and although the phrase “last days” seemingly conveys a short period of time, it apparently means more than 2,000 years since Christ has not yet returned.  The amillennialist suggests the phrase refers to the final era of history.

An important passage to the amillennialist is Acts 2:17-21.  In this passage, Peter addresses a crowd and quotes the Old Testament prophet, Joel.  The passage reads:

“In the last days,” God says, “I will pour out my Spirit on all people.  Your sons and daughters will prophecy, your young men will see visions, your old men will dream dreams.  Even on my servants, both men and women, I will pour out my Spirit in those days, and they will prophesy.  I will show wonders in the heaven above and sings on the earth below, blood and fire and billows of smoke.  The sun will be turned to darkness and the moon to blood before the coming of the great and glorious day of the Lord.  And everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved.".

The larger context of this passage is the coming of the Holy Spirit, which occurred shortly after Christ’s resurrection and ascension.  Peter calls this time the “last days” by means of quoting the Old Testament prophet, Joel.  Therefore, to the amillennialist, the world has been in an eschatological stage since the time of Christ.  Amillennialists also believe that Revelation 20:1-6 is a glimpse and description of this current stage.

Amillennialists also cite Hebrews 1:1-2 in their argument. 

“In the past God spoke to our forefathers through the prophets at many times and in various ways,”  writes the author of Hebrews,” but in these last days He has spoken to us by His Son, whom He appointed heir of all things, and through whom He made the universe” (NIV). 

Again, the phrase “last days” is associated with the first coming of Christ.  Likewise, 1 Peter 1:20 tell of the “last days” being associated with Christ:  “He was chosen before the creation of the world, but was revealed in these last times for your sake.” Other passages amillennialist cite have to do with Jesus as the true Israel.  Adherents believe that the promises given to Israel in the Old Testament are fulfilled spiritually in the person of Christ and in the Church.  Amillennialist, Robert B. Strimple writes:

All evangelical Christians are accustomed to viewing the Old Testament sacrifices and feasts and ceremonies as being types that is teaching tools pointing forward to the work of Christ.  Why then should the elements that we will consider now – the land of Canaan, the city of Jerusalem, the temple, the throne of David, the nation Israel itself – not be understood using the same interpretive insight that we use in interpreting the sacrifices and ceremonies?

Amillennialism and the nation of Israel

Unlike postmillennialism and premillennialism, amillennialism does not believe the nation of Israel has a unique, forthcoming time, distinct from Gentiles.  Because Christ fulfills the promises given to Israel, amillennialists believe God is finished with Israel as a national entity.  Whether Christ and the Church are separate from Israel or distinct is a crucial point of contention among eschatological systems.

For their argument on this issue, amillennialists cite Isaiah 42:1-7.  The passage reads:

“Here is my servant, whom I uphold, my chosen one in whom I delight; I will put my Spirit on Him and He will bring justice to the nations.  He will not shout or cry out, or raise His voice in the streets.  A bruised reed He will not break, and a smoldering wick He will not snuff out.  In faithfulness He will bring forth justice; He will not falter or be discouraged till He establishes justice on earth.  In His law the islands will put their hope.” This is what God the Lord says – “He who created the heavens and stretched them out, who spread out the earth and all that comes out of it, who gives breath to its people, and life to those who walk on it:  I the Lord have called you in righteousness; I will take hold of your hand.  I will keep you and will make you to be a covenant for the people and a light for the Gentiles, to open eyes that are blind, to free captives from prison and to release from the dungeon those who sit in darkness."

Amillennialism suggests that the individual spoken of in this passage is Christ, who is the fulfillment of the promises given to Israel.  In such passages, adherents believe that the nation of Israel is the Lord’s Servant, but acknowledge that their interpretation is only clear by looking back on the passage.  They suggest that even Isaiah did not know what he was writing about.

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