Islam

Glossary of Islam

ADVERTISEMENT

This glossary of Islam provides definitions of terms related to Islam, with links to full articles where available.

A.H.
(Latin anno hegirae, "After Hijira"). Western abbreviation for the Islamic dating of years, beginning with Muhammad's flight to Medina in 622 CE.
Abbasid
An Islamic dynasty established in 750, when it replaced the Umayyad caliphate. Originally based in Mesopotamia (the Abbasids founded Baghdad in 762), it remained dominant in the Islamic world until the mid-10th century. Abbasid art and architecture is characterized by Persian, Oriental, and Arabic influences.
adhan
Arabic. The call to prayer performed by the muezzin before each of the five daily times of prayer (salat).
Ahmadiyya
An Islamic religious movement founded in India in 1889 by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (ca. 1839-1908). Ghulam Ahmad claimed to be the Messiah Mahdi prophesied in the Koran, the Christian Messiah, an incarnation of the Hindu god Krishna, and a reappearance of Muhammad. In 1914 the sect split into two very separate branches, the Qadiyani and Lahori.
Allah
(Arabic, "God"). The name of God in Islam. Allah is the same God revealed (imperfectly) in the Jewish and Christian Bibles.
Ashura
For Sunni Muslims, a minor holiday with voluntary fasting. For Shi'a Muslims, a major holiday commemorating the death of Hussein in 680 CE, with solemn mourning rituals.
basmala
The Bismi'llah saying, "in the Name of Allah," that invokes a blessing upon an action or undertaking of a Muslim. The full form is bismillahi (ar-)rahmani (ar-)rahim, "in the Name of Allah the merciful the compassionate."
caliphs
(khalif, "deputy, successor"). A political leader of the Muslim community. The most important of these were the four Rightly-Guided Caliphs who ruled after the death of Muhammad.
caliphs
(khalif, "deputy, successor"). A political leader of the Muslim community. The most important of these were the four Rightly-Guided Caliphs who ruled after the death of Muhammad.
Eid
(or 'id; from Aramaic/Syriac, "festival"). In Islam, holiday or festival, of which there are two major ones: 'Id al-Adha and 'Id al-Fitr.
Eid Al-Adha
("Feast of the Sacrifice"). Islamic holiday marking the end of the hajj.
Eid Al-Fitr
("Feast of the Breaking of the Fast"). Holiday celebrated at the end of the month of Ramadan.
Five Pillars of Islam
(Arabic Arkan al-Islam, "pillars of Islam" or Arkan ud-Din, "pillars of the faith"). The five primary duties of every Muslim: profession of faith (shahada), ritual prayer (salat), fasting during Ramadan (sawm), pilgrimmage to Mecca (hajj) and charity (zakat). Fulfillment of these duties brings rewards on earth and in the afterlife.
hajj
("pilgrimmage"). Pilgrimage to Mecca required of every able Muslim at least once during his or her life. One of the Five Pillars of Islam.
Hijira
The Prophet's flight to Medina in 622 CE, marking the beginning of the Muslim calendar.
ADVERTISEMENT

Article Info

Title Glossary of Islam
Published
Last UpdatedFebruary 3, 2021
URL religionfacts.com/islam/glossary
Short URLrlft.co/3143
MLA Citation “Glossary of Islam.” ReligionFacts.com. 3 Feb. 2021. Web. Accessed 28 Sep. 2021. <religionfacts.com/islam/glossary>