Glossary of Religion: J
Learn the definitions of religious terms and concepts with our extensive Glossary of Religion. Choose a letter above or explore the random terms below.
- Jain Prateek Chihna
- Official symbol of Jainism.
- Religion and philosophy founded in India in the sixth century BCE by Vardhamana, one of the religious figures who protested and repudiated the orthodox doctrines of the Vedic cult. It is characterized by an aversion to rites of sacrifice prevalent in Vedic traditions, by the belief in the ethical doctrine of ahimsa, advocating non-injury to all living creatures, and by the struggle for the consummate ideal of human perfection achieved through monastic and devout living.
- Caste. The Indian caste system determines social status based on birth and lineage, and is generally not alterable. Its importance has declined somewhat in urban areas, but is still important in marriage.
- Jehovah's Witnesses
- Christian sect originally founded by Charles Taze Russell in the late 19th century. Russell's successor, Joseph Franklin Rutherford, adopted the name Jehovah's Witness in 1931. The sect believes that Jehovah (Yahweh) is the true God, and that Jesus Christ is the son of God. The sect's goal is to establish what they consider to be God's Kingdom, which they believe will emerge following an apocalyptic Armageddon.
- The central figure of Christianity, considered by most believers and scholars to be a historical figure who was a Jewish teacher and miracle-worker in the Roman province of Palestine around 30 CE. Christians further believe Jesus was the Son of God who died for the sins of humankind and came back from the dead three days after his execution.
- (Chinese, "school of transmission"). Philosophy.
- "teaching" or "religion." Generally refers to a religion, but the word only acquired this meaning around 1900 and does not always mean "religion." The original and literal meaning is "teaching."
- ("striving"). Holy war; the defense of Islam against its enemies. Sufism focuses on the "greater" jihad against sin in oneself.
- (from junna, "to be mad, furious, possessed"; singular jinni or genie). Shape-shifting fiery spirits, especially associated with the desert. Belief in jinn predates Islam, where they were widely believed to be the inspiration of poets and seers. In Islam, they are spiritual beings inferior to angels and devils who will face salvation or damnation along with humans.
- Tax imposed on "People of the Book" living under Muslim rule.
- Path of knowledge and truth. One of three paths to moksa.
- Pertaining to the apostle John.
- John Wycliffe
- (c.1328-84) English philosopher, theologian and reformer. He is known for his English translation of the Bible and has been called the "Morning Star of the Reformation."
- Monotheistic religion of the Jewish people, central to which is the belief that the ancient Israelites experienced God's presence in human events. Jews believe that the one God delivered the Israelites out of bondage in Egypt, revealed the structure of communal and individual life to them, and chose them to be a holy nation of people able to set an example for all humankind. The Hebrew Bible and Talmud are the two primary sources for Judaism's spiritual and ethical principles.
- The spacing of words and letters within a line of type so that all full lines in a column have even margins on both the left and the right.