The Apocrypha



What is the Apocrypha?

bible scroll

The Apocrypha, also known as the Deutero-canonical writings, are ancient books that are associated with the Hebrew bible (i.e the Christian Old Testament), but are not part of the canon, which is the collection of officially accepted books. Most of these writings were composed from approximately the 5th to the 1st century, prior to the birth of Jesus Christ, and therefore do no contain stories about Christ, the apostles, or the Christian church..

At the time of Christ, two versions of the Old Testament (or Tanakh) were in circulation: a Hebrew version and a Greek version. The Greek version is known as the "Septuagint" (or "LXX" for short), after the legend that 72 translators working independently came up with identical Greek translations.

Several books appear in the Septuagint that do not appear in the Hebrew version, most of which were written during the "intertestamental period" between Nehemiah (c. 432 BC) and Jesus Christ (c. 5 BC). These books were regarded by Jewish sages as Sefarim hizonim, extraneous books, and were not part of the Hebrew canon. {1} Collectively these writings are known to both Jews and Christians as the "Apocrypha" or "Deutero-canonical" writings, meaning "second canon," which signifies that they are important, but not on par with the canon.

Traditionally, Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodox Christianity uses these writings and include them in their published Bible, while Protestant Christianity does not include them in their Bible and don't derive doctrine from them, but may use them for learning history.

Catholic and Orthodox Christians regard most of these books called "Apocrypha" - meaning "hidden" - as canonical. They are called deuterocanonical by Catholics and anagignoskomena by the Orthodox.




The books of the Apocrypha

Most Popular
Christianity Pages

1. Catholic and Protestant
comparison chart

2. Christianity, Islam, Judaism
comparison chart

3. Christian denominations
comparison chart

4. Christian symbols

5. Christianity Facts

Top Pages for
Christian practices

1. Baptism

2. Holy Water

3. Icons

4. Papacy

5. Confirmation

1 Esdras

1 Esdras is virtually identical to Ezra in the Hebrew bible (i.e. the Christian Old Testament), with one notable addition in the middle of chapter 4.

2 Esdras

The author of 2 Esdras asks questions, like Job, in order to understanding the meaning of suffering.

Tobias/Tobit

Tobit tells the story of a righteous Israelite, of the Tribe of Naphtali, named Tobit living in Nineveh after the deportation of the northern tribes of Israel to Assyria in 721 BC under Sargon II.

Judith

The narrative revolves around Judith, a daring and beautiful widow, who is upset with her Jewish countrymen for not trusting God to deliver them from their foreign conquerors.

Additions to Esther

Six additional chapters appear interspersed in the book of Esther, as it appears in the Hebrew Bible. Additional sections include an opening prologue that describes a dream had by Mordecai and another records prayers for God's intervention offered by Mordecai and Esther.

Wisdom of Solomon

This book is of genre of wisdom literature, similar to Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Solomon.

Ecclesiasticus/Sirach

Ecclesiasticus is a book of ethical teachings, composed from approximately 200 to 175 BC, and written by the Jewish scribe Shimon ben Yeshua ben Eliezer ben Sira of Jerusalem.

Baruch/Epistle of Jeremiah

This book is categorized with prophetical books like Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lamentations, Ezekiel, and Daniel. In canonical literature, Baruch ben Neriah, was Jeremiah's scribe.

Prayer of Azariah/Song of the Three Children

The Prayer of Azariah is a passage that appears after Daniel 3:23 in Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Bibles.

Susanna

Susanna was a Hebrew wife who was falsely accused. As she bathes in her garden, having sent her attendants away, two lustful elders secretly observe her. When she makes her way back to her house, they accost her, threatening to claim that she was meeting a young man in the garden unless she agrees to have sex with them.

Bel and the Dragon

The narrative of Bel and the Dragon is incorporated as chapter 14 of the extended book of Daniel. The chapter is formed of three independent narratives, which place Daniel at the court of Cyrus, king of the Persians.

The Prayer of Manasseh

The Prayer of Manasseh is 15 verses of the prayer of king Manasseh of Judah, who is recorded in the Bible as one of the most idolatrous kings of Judah (2 Kings 21:1–18; 2 Chronicles 33:1–9).

1 Maccabees

The setting of the book is about a century after the conquest of Judea by the Greeks under Alexander the Great, after Alexander's empire has been divided so that Judea was part of the Greek Seleucid Empire.

2 Maccabees

2 Maccabees does not attempt to provide a complete account of the events of the period, instead covering only the period from the high priest Onias III and King Seleucus IV (180 BC) to the defeat of Nicanor in 161.

Usage

The early Christians, most of whom spoke Greek, used the Septuagint, which included the Apocrypha. The Apocrypha continued in common use among Christians until the Reformation, when the Hebrew canon was chosen as the Protestant Old Testament. Catholic and Orthodox Churches continue to use the Septuagint. The Catholic Church officially declared its choice at both the Council of Trent (1546) and the First Vatican Council (1869-70). {2} The only theological significance of the acceptance or nonacceptance of the Apocrypha is that the Books of the Maccabees support prayer for the dead, which Protestants do not accept. {3}

Recommended for You


More on Christianity


More Religious Practices


World Religions - Main pages


Christian beliefs

Christian denominations

Christian fast facts

Christian history

Christian holidays

Christian biographies

Christian practices

Christian symbols

 


Bahai practices

Buddhism practices

Chinese religion practices

Hinduism practices

Islam practices

Jainism practices

Jehovah's Witnesses practices

Judaism practices

Mormonism practices

Rastafari practices

Buddhism

Christianity

Confucianism

Hinduism

Islam

Jehovah's Witnesses

Judaism

Mormonism



References

1. "Apocrypha,"Oxford Concise Dictionary of World Religions, 47.

2. "The Time Between the Testaments," NIV Study Bible, 1432.

3. McGrath, Christian Theology: An Introduction, 2nd ed., 193.